# In this section we are going to talk about the importance of Maths in life.

OK, so you got your grades and now you are thinking which sort of degree to do.

## What can we do with Maths? In this section you can see a bit of what University engineering is like.

What you can do with some of the maths you have learnt, and what applications mathematics has.

## Preliminary report

### 1. Aim of the project

The proposal of this project is to analyze the problem of the unnecessary consumption of the active power for an electrical industrial installation. Thus a technique to generate the reactive power is to be found.

The limitations are subject to the experimental work in the laboratory and under conditions established in the risk assessment form.

### 2. Introduction

Loads, transformers, lines, motors, etc absorb actually more reactive power. Consequently more harmonics are generated.

Consumers of electricity have to be aware of this fact and to know that it causes higher voltage drops and conductive power losses.

A bad electrical industrial installation for the consumer will use more active power than reactive. So the power factor (cos Î¦) will be smaller than 1. For this reason the consumer â€˜Aâ€™ is probably paying for and consuming more electricity than consumer â€˜Bâ€™ whose power factor (cos Î¦) is around 1. (Optimal power factor)

Therefore an optimal power factor of 1 means that the higher voltage drop is reduced, the conductive power losses also would be reduced and the active power available for the consumer â€˜Bâ€™ will increase.

### 3. Aspect of the problem

A technique to generate the reactive power is to be found and these are some of the following aspects that would have to be taken into consideration:

• AC static switches are sensitive to transitory surges generated by inductance load (L (di/dt)).
• The ventilation of the system is an important factor due to the amount of loss of energy .
• Pspice is the software that is going to be used to simulate different proposal schematics.
• The protection of the circuits is going to be an important factor to avoid damage of components and circuits.

### 4. Ideas for its solution

Different technologies can be used to achieve this:

• The insertion of capacitor banks which will generate a reactive power proportional to the voltage and the capacity.
• The use of Static Var compensators where they are connected or disconnected from the network using thyristors acting as electronic switches. The voltage is in phase with the network voltage and the reactive generation is controlled by regulating the amplitude of the source.
• The use of AC Static Switches which will activate or deactivate capacitors depending on the inductance load. This means between a regulator that will try to maintain (cos Î¦ = 1). (See Figure.1) using any of the existing configurations for Satic Var compensators (see figure.2/3).

### 5. Gantt Chart

The Gantt Chart proposed (see attached) is an initial guide to follow. Obviously this will be modified moving forwards or backwards depending of the number of task, time, etc.

The first 7 lines of the Gantt show the duration of the project with the important dates of reports and presentation that have to be accomplished.

All the following stages show how the tasks are structured with the approximate times that can be adjusted afterwards. At the moment the entire task are situated as early as possible to avoid the dead line of the project.

### 6. Annex of electrical schematics

Basically 3 initial electrical schematics are shown.

Figure 1 shows the initial think of the project explained previously above.

Figure 2 and figure 3 show possibilities of electrical structures to be investigated.

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